Canto XXXIII

Lettura e Commento al Canto XXXIII a cura di Gaetano Stea

Nel canto XXXIII dell’Inferno la figura del Conte Ugolino rappresenta l’anima tragica di Dante. Varie sono le significazioni e le metafore inserite nel canto, dal senso di solitudine che attanagliava la vita del poeta, e che rappresentò, come per il Conte, la conseguenza della cacciata da Firenze e la vita raminga per il mondo, a causa del tradimento del Papa Bonifacio VIII, all’ostracismo che fu comminato al poeta stesso, ed anche ai suoi figli, ancorché innocenti circa le imputazioni ascritte al loro genitore, come peraltro si racconta anche del Conte Ugolino, ed infine la morte lenta e terribile che fu data al Conte ed ai suoi figli, della cui narrazione nessuno mai seppe nulla, e che il poeta riesce a ricostruire liricamente ed a trasmettere alla posterità, quasi testamento segreto che egli ha voluto tramandare come cifra e contrassegno del proprio dramma interiore, e la cui fine sarebbe rimasta sconosciuta ai più, come era accaduto al Conte Ugolino.
La figura del Conte si staglia a tutto tondo nel poema dantesco, come forse non era riuscito in precedenza, per il ritmo tutto particolare con il quale ha scandito i momenti della storia raccontata, per i sentimenti che si succedono in maniera più o meno intensa a seconda dell’approssimarsi all’evento finale, e per l’invettiva che esce dalla penna del poeta, quasi eco di tromba del giudizio, per condannare la città di Pisa, “vituperio delle genti”, e per ammonire l’umanità intera di non più commettere i mali così atroci quali quelli perpetrati nei confronti del Conte Ugolino, come il tradimento e la morte lenta per fame data a lui ed anche ai propri figli.
La violazione dell’infanzia, dopo il male rappresentato dal tradimento perpetrato nei confronti del Conte, rappresenta l’altra accusa che il poeta rivolge alla società dell’epoca, allorché i figli espiavano le colpe dei loro genitori, pur risultando del tutto innocenti “Non dovei tu i figliuoi porre a tal croce / innocenti facea l’età novella / Novella Tebe, Uguccione e il Brigata / e gli altri che il canto suso appella”.
Nell’atto di “manducare” il cranio del suo traditore l’Arcivescovo Ruggieri, Ugolino svolge nello stesso tempo il ruolo di carnefice e di vittima, in quanto egli è condannato a far soffrire, in una sorta di strano contrappasso all’interno di un rapporto traditore-tradito, ed ove il tradito a sua volta si è macchiato della colpa del tradimento verso altri.
La bestialità dell’atto del Conte di mordere il cranio del dannato collocato sotto di lui, è descritta con i connotati dell’orrido, e la prima parola che apre il canto risulta essere “la bocca”, la quale diventa protagonista ed autrice dell’atto di bestialità, e l’immagine descritta della bocca sanguinante dalla quale fuoriescono le parole, è tanto raccapricciante da far voltare la testa altrove, conducendo la memoria del lettore ad un altro personaggio, Pier delle Vigne, anch’egli dannato, e la cui voce lamentosa fuoriusciva da un albero di pruno, nel racconto di un dramma di fedeltà al principe, mal ripagata, a causa dell’”invidia delle corti vizio” che ”fece me contra me giusto”. Il Conte nel racconto degli eventi che si susseguirono fino alla morte dei suoi tre figli, uno dopo l’altro, inserisce una parola che esprime bene il suo dramma interiore, allorché nel momento in cui prende consapevolezza della sua fine ormai certa, preceduta da quella dei propri figli, dice: “così dentro impetrai”.
Il dolore insopportabile, non ha lacrime né voce, ma si esprime in forma di pianto cristallizzato, e perciò la parola “impetrai” indica la pietrificazione mitologica, e perciò tragica ed autenticamente vera, di questo dolore antico, scolpito nella pietra, occorso al Conte, che ha coinvolto empaticamente il poeta stesso, per la similarità degli eventi occorsi ad entrambi.
I grandi traditori della storia che il poeta volutamente colloca nella parte più profonda dell’inferno, Giuda, Bruto e Cassio, stanno ad ammonire gli uomini di tutti i tempi che il male che l’uomo compie, profittando dei sentimenti di amicizia del suo simile, che così diventa “tradito”, può essere assimilato a quello commesso da Lucifero, in compagnia del quale i traditori del poema sono sprofondati in perfetta contiguità.
Se l’uomo continuerà a battere questa strada, se violerà l’infanzia, producendo una genìa di esseri così mostruosi, si abbatterà sulla terra la pagana nemesi vendicatrice, come la scure di Raskolnikov che si aggira intorno al mondo, e, come accadde al semideo Orfeo che urlò la sua disperazione nei confronti delle divinità infernali per la perdita di Euridice, con il verso “prendetevi il mio ben” musicato da Claudio Monteverdi, così anche il poeta Dante, novello Orfeo, avendo perso la sua anima a causa del tradimento perpetrato da parte dei propri nemici storici, come nell’Euridice del mito, continuerà a gridare anche lui, con lo strumento lirico del canto: “prendetevi il mio ben”.

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