4^Conferenza

Ateneo: Salone degli Affreschi –

20 Dicembre 2005

Prof. Luciano Canfora
docente dell’Università degli Studi di Bari

sul tema: “Polis ateniese e democrazia”

Nel trattare l’argomento l’illustre relatore ha esordito affrontando il problema della datazione del modello politico di democrazia, e collocandolo alla metà del V° secolo a.C. Il problema era stato affrontato da vari scrittori, e, fra gli storici più importanti sono da ricordare Tucidide, Senofonte, ed ancorpiù Erodoto. Quest’ultimo in una pagina della sua opera ove descrive in dettaglio la democrazia, non fa alcun riferimento alla città di Atene, pur essendo ateniese egli stesso. Anzi Erodoto lascia intravedere la possibilità che il modello di democrazia fosse stato ideato per prima in Persia, sottraendo così ad Atene il legittimo primato in materia. Il relatore, in contrario avviso rispetto ai moderni studiosi, ritiene non del tutto infondata l’ipotesi ventilata da Erodoto, nel senso che non è da escludere affatto che nell’antica Persia ci fosse qualcosa di antico, una forma originaria del governo degli uguali, di persone di originaria nobiltà persiana, sia pure in contraddizione con la forma monarchica presente a quel tempo, allorché la Persia si affermò con la vittoria di Dario. Questo ci aiuta a comprendere l’idea di democrazia antica. Un governo di uguali che nella mentalità degli antichi greci era l’equivalente della parola “democrazia”, mentre altrove non lo era. Sparta per esempio, che è indicata come il luogo dell’oligarchia, per i greci era una “democrazia”, esercitata dagli spartiati, i quali erano una casta che aveva sottomesso le popolazioni preesistenti, riducendoli in stato di subalternità, per cui gli iloti, che poi si sarebbero ribellati, non erano gli spartiati. Gli spartiati erano tutti uguali fra di loro, e quella di Sparta era da considerare una democrazia perfetta, nonostante la ricchezza in Sparta non fosse uguale per tutti. Affiorano perciò diverse democrazie. La democrazia radicale del quinto secolo presenta questa caratteristica: i guerrieri che si armano a proprie spese per combattere sono gli spartiati. Essi sono un popolo di uguali composto da cittadini in quanto soldati, per cui gli ilioti, non essendo guerrieri, non sono affatto cittadini, e per questo erano considerati “sottouomini”. Ad Atene invece si compie un salto mortale per la società antica; anche i non ricchi, quelli cioè che non sono in grado di armarsi a proprie spese, sono ugualmente cittadini, poiché hanno un impiego militare nella flotta, e la flotta rappresenta il mezzo per vincere il nemico. Atene non aveva mai vinto in guerre combattute per terra. Tutti quanti sono indispensabili per la flotta, e perciò sono cittadini di diritto. A tale fine l’attribuzione ai non possidenti della cittadinanza in quanto militari sulle navi, crea una possibilità di accesso per la città di Atene di trentamila persone, per l’assemblea popolare ateniese, e per il corpo decisionale. Trattasi di un miracolo, di un esperimento unico mai tentato in precedenza, di una democrazia che funziona come democrazia assembleare, con cittadini a pieno diritto, nonostante siano non possidenti. Lo stesso Tucidide nell’anno 411 a.C. prima del colpo di stato oligarchico, sostiene che in fondo, se limitiamo la cittadinanza a sole cinquemila persone, non è poi cosa grave, in quanto non esisterà mai un’assemblea di cinquemila persone. Partecipano quindi, secondo quanto stabilisce Efialte, i marinai, ed i non possidenti, ed il potere effettivo appartiene a quel ceto che è entrato in politica, e che è ammesso al potere navale. I critici di questo modello quali gli storici, i poeti ed altri, guardano con diffidenza alla democrazia assembleare, allorché si chiedono: quanta competenza hanno coloro che partecipano alle assemblee? Ed inoltre: in che misura la società dell’epoca è alfabetizzata? La legge scritta evita che possa darsi luogo ad interpretazioni gratuite delle leggi, per cui di necessità alfabetizzazione e democrazia appaiono inscindibili. E per questo la critica liberale classica è scettica sulla democrazia così intesa, sostenendo invece la necessità del voto ristretto. Lo stesso Euripide afferma non essere possibile una democrazia in una società non alfabetizzata. Va perciò cercata una possibilità di convivenza fra una base sociale ristretta a cinquemila persone, ed i capi che effettivamente esercitano l’attività di governo. Come si gioca il rapporto fra queste due entità? Sono forse le “élites” che continuano a comandare in regime di democrazia radicale? Si. Perché i posti direttivi veri spettano ai più ricchi, e gli strateghi si scelgono tra gli alti esponenti della società? Forse perché la competenza, l’arte della parola, il potere di clan sono gli elementi più favorevoli per l’accesso alle cariche pubbliche? C’è un accordo tacito che funziona fra chi comanda e chi è governato, e che arreca un reciproco vantaggio, e perciò ai ricchi non viene sottratta la ricchezza, ma di contro vengono loro imposte delle liturgie di utilità sociale, come allestire la flotta, far funzionare il teatro ecc.ecc., in modo che essi offrono alla città la loro ricchezza in termini di utilità sociale, e guidano così la città in senso dinamico. Anche qui sono le “elites” a comandare, e poi ci sono gli elettori. Anche nella democrazia radicale assembleare ateniese esiste tale doppia dimensione. Trattasi di una dinamica circolare ove convergono assieme un guidare ed un essere guidati, e la forza sta in chi sta in alto al potere. Una piccola parte non accetta il sistema, sogna un antico ordine, un modello di virtù spartane in cui le conquiste di Pericle ed Efialte dovrebbero essere cancellate. Da Euripide non vengono addotti argomenti a sostegno della negazione della democrazia così intesa, e tuttavia Euripide svolge un’opera di incrinatura dei fondamenti del sistema, seminando il dubbio; gli oligarchi così aspettano il momento per agire, aspettando che il nemico ceda. In Atene tale cedimento si verificò per ben due volte, così come racconta lo stesso Erodoto, allorché nel 404 a.C. si instaurò un governo filospartano con alla testa i trenta tiranni, un comitato di trenta persone guidato da Crizia, che limitava la cittadinanza a sole tremila persone. Si trattò di un tracollo, e fu l’unico ordinamento spartano imposto ad Atene, che finì però con un fallimento, poiché Atene tornerà poi sul mare e la democrazia verrà restaurata e durerà. Qual è il punto più delicato di questa struttura? Con la caduta dell’Areopago non vi è più una mediazione fra chi comanda e la base dei cittadini. Cosa deve prevalere, il popolo o la legge? Se fonte della legislazione e delle decisioni è l’assemblea popolare, questa è la legge, produce le leggi, e tuttavia non è affatto vincolata a queste leggi. Chi sta al di sopra? La risposta è che ad Atene domina il popolo e non la legge, essendo il popolo superiore alla legge. Questo è un problema che ha insidiato il funzionamento della città e che non ha trovato una soluzione in un corpo intermedio fra il soggetto politico e la leadership. Il modello di democrazia ateniese non ha avuto lo sviluppo storico di cui noi moderni crediamo di essere l’estrema propaggine. Esso è rimasto un esperimento limitato nel tempo, insidiato da una tale enorme difficoltà, non essendosi data una costituzione scritta, ed essendosi chiusa in un sistema di leggi slegate tra di loro. C’è un momento in cui sembra rinascere il modello ateniese, nell’anno secondo della prima repubblica francese, allorché la Convenzione Nazionale governò sotto la pressione del popolo parigino, ma le vicende che seguirono finirono per travolgerla poiché poco dopo subentrerà il bonapartismo. Segue il sistema liberale a suffragio limitato da cui deriverà il suffragio universale in funzione di parlamenti eletti con questo strumento elettorale. Mai fu messa in discussione la struttura che media tra una base sociale e la leadership, in un sistema misto in cui i corpi sociali sono molteplici. La democrazia non è quindi che un’idea forte, un’ipotesi, e un’aspirazione.

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